BO – 10 Settembre 2014
It is not easy to manage energy policy, and it is even less so when you are part of a union of 28 countries with profound differences in economic structure, history, geographical position, availability of resources, and infrastructure. It is even less so when for decades you have been dependent on a single supply source coming from a state that is outside of the Union you belong to. This is the situation of Hungary today. A nation whose energy dependency as a percentage of total consumption has paradoxically increased since abandoning the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union, going from 54% in 1990 to 68% in 2012.
The dissolution of the Communist Party and the political transformation that started in Hungary at the beginning of the 90s marked a new era for the country‟s energy policy. After years of energy dependency, the direct line to Russia stopped and energy security was not granted anymore. In fact it became an indispensable condition to kick-start the transition towards a free market economy capable of fostering the economic development of the country. The equilibrium that was consolidated throughout four decades – where oil, gas and electricity where imported in exchange for industrial manufacturing – was definitively broken. This is why Hungarian energy plans in the 90s listed energy security as the first priority, and this is where Hungary had to start its political and economic emancipation from the past.